INSTITUTO SUPERIOR DE CIENCIAS MEDICAS DE LA HABANA

FACULTAD DE MEDICINA MANUEL FAJARDO

DEPARTAMENTO DE INGLES

 

This paper is the result of a two-year research work. It is aimed at summarizing some of the aspects of a very important professional skill: Oral Presentation.

The Manuel Fajardo School of Medicine English staff realized that this skill has not been taught or developed at any school level in Cuba. Besides, there is no bibliography or courses to let teachers and students learn the steps and its methodology.

 

Our department suggests that this Oral presentation skill should be taught to medical and nursing students when they start their second year. This will help them to be better presenters when they graduate. As most of the medical and nursing students participate in the Students' Scientific Workshops held in all medical schools, and they have to make oral presentations in their seminars in class. Therefore, this is a good chance to learn the way to make an oral presentation

 

Our English staff will provide you with the necessary and basic tools to develop an adequate oral presentation in English. The oral presentation steps are as follows:.

 

Introducing yourself

Preparing the audience

Delivering the message

Summarizing and concluding

Good morning...

Let me introduce myself. My name ...

I am a specilaist in.

 

English is not my mother tongue,

I hope you'll excuse

me if I make any

mistake

Today, I will be talking about ...

 

First, I will talk about...

Then, I will move on to....

Finally, I will deal with ...

 

If you do not mind, leave the questions to the end

Let's start with the background (or rationale)

As you probably know...

I must emphasize ..

 

Referring to visuals

If you look at the graph

Please draw your attention to the chart...

 

To digress for a little

Back to my earlier point..

Right, Let's now move on to

Finally, I would like

Before concluding, I would like to summarize the main points again..

 

Well, this is all for today

 

Any questions?

I'll be happy to answer them.

 

That's all I had to say.

 

Thank you very much for listening

This set of phrases and words are just a guide for your presentation. Their main intention is to provide you with a set of useful phrases to pave the way for a good presentation.

 

Giving an Oral presentation is not an easy matter. Its structure is one aspect but there are many others to be taken into account. For example: the audiovisual aids you are going to use. They all have positive and negative aspects. It is you who should decide which to use according to the audience, location where the presentation will take place and also your own possibilities and personal charisma..

 

Let's take a close look at some of the most common audiovisual aids:

 

1.      Overhead transparency. Use of Overhead projector (OHP)

 

Strengths

Possible problems

        Easy to prepare

        Low-cost

        Flexible (pre-constructed or spontaneous)

        Easy to see on large screen

        Materials are lightweight

        Overuse

        Too much printing on one transparency

        Noise of OHP fan may distract

        Need of white area for projection

        Incorrect handling

        Technical breakdown

 

 

2. Posters

 

Strengths

Possible problems

        Colorful

        May be humorous

        Concise

        Can be displayed anywhere

        Too small for size of the room

        Audience reads ahead

        Needs lots of time for preparation

        Needs other supplies (tacks,tape,

etc)

 

 

3. Audio-tape presentation

 

Strengths

Possible problems

        Offers variety. Encourages listeing

        Easy to repeat

        Low-cost

        May be complemented with other media

        Technical breakdown

        Not enough sound for size of the room

        Overuse may bore the audience

        If repetition is needed a recorder with a 'meter' is a must

4. Power Point (Data Show) presentation

 

Strengths

Possible Problems

        Colorful, attractive - places attention on screen

        Realistic - photos may be included

        Pre-constructed

        Stimulates sound and sight together

        Puts less emphasis on speaker

        May be out of synchronism (voice may run ahead of picture)

        Technical difficulties

        Needs to be computer literate (or have a skilled assistant)

        Too much technology needed

        Not all venues have this facility

        Too much reliance on the aid by presenter

 

The presentation of your information can be done in different ways. Look at the following ways and see their strengths and weaknesses.

DIAGRAMS, MAPS

Strengths

         Respected by experts

        Very detailed

Problems

         May distract viewer

        Too detailed for understanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PICTURES

Strengths

         Realistic

         Believable

         Colorful

Problems

         Too small for audience

         Too much detail

         Audience distracted by irrelevant things

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAR & PIE CHARTS

Strengths

         Colorful

         Concise

         Size relationship shown

         Simple

Problems

         Bars (too fat or thin)

         Not enough difference in height

         Be distracted by other pieces of the pie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Finally, we would like to provide you a list of D0's (things you should do) and Don'ts (what you should not do) when making oral presentations

 

DO'S

DON'TS

        Plan , write and rehearse your presentation with some time ahead

        Find out about your audience before the presentation

        Limit the amount of information

        Speak clearly and slowly

        Keep to the time allotted to you

        Keep the eye contact with audience

        Check transparencies, slides, and cassettes, before the presentation

        Smile, give confidence to your audience

        Care about your physical appearance

      Look at the ceiling or floor

      Use jargon words

      Memorize the whole presentation,

only the first two minutes of it

      Gesture too much. People may get distracted

      Speak too fast or too loud

      Play with the cards, pointers, etc while you are presenting.

      Go to a presentation unprepared

      Mumble words

      Repeat OK, Right, Well during the presentation

      Hesitate

 

All what we have shown here, it is just a guide for your presentation. This means that you can start adding your ideas and comments to our suggestions and we are sure you will become a good speaker in a short while.

 

Knowing how to organize your ideas and how to present them to others will undoubtedly help you convey your ideas more clearly and achieve your goals

 

 

Making Oral Presentations

Manuel Fajardo Medical School

English Department

April 2001